Wildlife Acoustics Blog

Explaining Maximum Likelihood Estimators (MLE) and P-values used in Kaleidoscope

The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidance describes the use of approved software programs. As part of their software testing criteria:

As species identifications are never perfect, all analysis programs must utilize a maximum-likelihood estimator  approach to determine species presence at the site rather than relying on a single sequence. Post-hoc maximum-likelihood estimator p-values will be used to determine acceptance thresholds for final identification determination. The maximum-likelihood estimator used by Kaleidoscope Pro is based on a 2002 paper by Britzke, Murray, Heywood, and Robbins "Acoustic Identification".

The method described takes two inputs. First, there are the classification results e.g. How many detections of each bat did the classifier find? Second, there is the confusion matrix representing the known error rates across all the classifiers. For example, 70% of MYLU calls are correctly classified as MYLU while 3% of MYLU calls are misclassified as MYSO, etc.

How Far Can My Microphone “Hear”?

How Far Can My Microphone “Hear”?

Have you ever wondered how far away an animal can be and still be detected by your microphone? This is a question we get very frequently.

The simple answer is that there isn’t a simple answer.

Tips for Recording in the Heat

Tips for Recording in the Heat

Since it’s now summer here at Wildlife Acoustics HQ, we’d like to take this time to briefly talk about recording in hot weather.

(If it’s cold where you are right now, you can see our cold weather post here.)

The two most basic considerations in hot weather are batteries and mic windscreens. 

Wildlife Acoustics is proud to support wildlife conservation efforts

Merlin Tuttle's Bat Conservation Bat Conservation International Bat Conservation Trust Wildlife Habitat Counsil